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Sometimes rendered as the " Loyal Opposition ", it acknowledges the legitimate existence of several political parties , and describes an important constitutional concept: opposing the government is not treason; reasonable men can honestly oppose its policies and still be loyal to the Sovereign and the nation.
Informally recognized for over a century as a convention of the constitution, the position of Leader of the Opposition was given statutory recognition in by the Ministers of the Crown Act.
British prime ministers have never been elected directly by the public. A prime minister need not be a party leader; David Lloyd George was not a party leader during his service as prime Minister during World War I, and neither was Ramsay MacDonald from to Since , most prime ministers have been members of the Commons; since , all have had a seat there.
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair , for example, represented Sedgefield in County Durham from to He became Prime Minister because in he was elected Labour Party leader and then led the party to victory in the general election , winning seats compared to for the Conservatives and gaining a majority in the House of Commons.
Neither the sovereign nor the House of Lords had any meaningful influence over who was elected to the Commons in or in deciding whether or not Blair would become Prime Minister.
Their detachment from the electoral process and the selection of the prime minister has been a convention of the constitution for almost years.
Prior to the 19th century, however, they had significant influence, using to their advantage the fact that most citizens were disenfranchised and seats in the Commons were allocated disproportionately.
In , Charles Grey , the 2nd Earl Grey and a life-long Whig, became Prime Minister and was determined to reform the electoral system.
For two years, he and his Cabinet fought to pass what has come to be known as the Great Reform Bill of As John Bright, a liberal statesman of the next generation, said, "It was not a good Bill, but it was a great Bill when it passed.
The representation of 56 rotten boroughs was eliminated completely, together with half the representation of 30 others; the freed up seats were distributed to boroughs created for previously disenfranchised areas.
However, many rotten boroughs remained and it still excluded millions of working-class men and all women. Symbolically, however, the Reform Act exceeded expectations.
It is now ranked with Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights as one of the most important documents of the British constitutional tradition. First, the Act removed the sovereign from the election process and the choice of Prime Minister.
Slowly evolving for years, this convention was confirmed two years after the passage of the Act. In , King William IV dismissed Melbourne as premier, but was forced to recall him when Robert Peel , the king's choice, could not form a working majority.
Since then, no sovereign has tried to impose a prime minister on Parliament. Second, the Bill reduced the Lords' power by eliminating many of their pocket boroughs and creating new boroughs in which they had no influence.
Weakened, they were unable to prevent the passage of more comprehensive electoral reforms in , , and when universal equal suffrage was established.
Ultimately, this erosion of power led to the Parliament Act , which marginalised the Lords' role in the legislative process and gave further weight to the convention that had developed over the previous century [note 7] that a prime minister cannot sit in the House of Lords.
The last to do so was Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury , from to Grey set an example and a precedent for his successors.
He was primus inter pares first among equals , as Bagehot said in of the prime minister's status. Using his Whig victory as a mandate for reform, Grey was unrelenting in the pursuit of this goal, using every parliamentary device to achieve it.
Although respectful toward the king, he made it clear that his constitutional duty was to acquiesce to the will of the people and Parliament. The Loyal Opposition acquiesced too.
Some disgruntled Tories claimed they would repeal the bill once they regained a majority. But in , Robert Peel, the new Conservative leader, put an end to this threat when he stated in his Tamworth Manifesto that the bill was "a final and irrevocable settlement of a great constitutional question which no friend to the peace and welfare of this country would attempt to disturb".
The premiership was a reclusive office prior to The incumbent worked with his Cabinet and other government officials; he occasionally met with the sovereign and attended Parliament when it was in session during the spring and summer.
He never went out on the stump to campaign, even during elections; he rarely spoke directly to ordinary voters about policies and issues.
After the passage of the Great Reform Bill , the nature of the position changed: prime ministers had to go out among the people. The Bill increased the electorate to , As the franchise increased, power shifted to the people, and prime ministers assumed more responsibilities with respect to party leadership.
It naturally fell on them to motivate and organise their followers, explain party policies, and deliver its "message".
Successful leaders had to have a new set of skills: to give a good speech, present a favourable image, and interact with a crowd.
They became the "voice", the "face" and the "image" of the party and ministry. Robert Peel, often called the "model prime minister",  was the first to recognise this new role.
After the successful Conservative campaign of , J. Croker said in a letter to Peel, "The elections are wonderful, and the curiosity is that all turns on the name of Sir Robert Peel.
It's the first time that I remember in our history that the people have chosen the first Minister for the Sovereign. Pitt's case in '84 is the nearest analogy; but then the people only confirmed the Sovereign's choice; here every Conservative candidate professed himself in plain words to be Sir Robert Peel's man, and on that ground was elected.
Benjamin Disraeli and William Ewart Gladstone developed this new role further by projecting "images" of themselves to the public.
Known by their nicknames "Dizzy" and the "Grand Old Man", their colourful, sometimes bitter, personal and political rivalry over the issues of their time — Imperialism vs.
Anti-Imperialism, expansion of the franchise, labour reform, and Irish Home Rule — spanned almost twenty years until Disraeli's death in Each created a different public image of himself and his party.
Disraeli, who expanded the Empire to protect British interests abroad, cultivated the image of himself and the Conservative Party as "Imperialist", making grand gestures such as conferring the title " Empress of India " on Queen Victoria in Gladstone, who saw little value in the Empire, proposed an anti-Imperialist policy later called "Little England" , and cultivated the image of himself and the Liberal Party as "man of the people" by circulating pictures of himself cutting down great oak trees with an axe as a hobby.
Gladstone went beyond image by appealing directly to the people. In his Midlothian campaign — so called because he stood as a candidate for that county — Gladstone spoke in fields, halls and railway stations to hundreds, sometimes thousands, of students, farmers, labourers and middle class workers.
Although not the first leader to speak directly to voters — both he and Disraeli had spoken directly to party loyalists before on special occasions — he was the first to canvass an entire constituency, delivering his message to anyone who would listen, encouraging his supporters and trying to convert his opponents.
Publicised nationwide, Gladstone's message became that of the party. Noting its significance, Lord Shaftesbury said, "It is a new thing and a very serious thing to see the Prime Minister on the stump.
Campaigning directly to the people became commonplace. Several 20th-century prime ministers, such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill , were famous for their oratorical skills.
After the introduction of radio, motion pictures, television, and the internet, many used these technologies to project their public image and address the nation.
Stanley Baldwin , a master of the radio broadcast in the s and s, reached a national audience in his talks filled with homely advice and simple expressions of national pride.
Two recent prime ministers, Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair who both spent a decade or more as Prime Minister , achieved celebrity status like rock stars, but have been criticised for their more 'presidential' style of leadership.
According to Anthony King , "The props in Blair's theatre of celebrity included The Prime Minister is appointed by the monarch, through the exercise of the royal prerogative.
However, in modern times, much of the process is informally governed by constitutional conventions and authoritative sources, particularly the Cabinet Manual.
In the past, the monarch has used personal choice to dismiss or appoint a Prime Minister the last time being in , but it is now the case that they should not be drawn into party politics.
The Prime Minister " A majority in the House of Commons is currently MPs , but a working majority is currently MPs. In simple terms, alongside a majority government like the second Johnson ministry , there are three other types of governments that can be formed, though they could overlap:  : 2.
In the case of a Prime Minister's resignation during a parliament, it is for the party or parties in government to choose a successor,  : 2.
In the case of a hung parliament , where no party has a majority in the House of Commons and a range of different governments could potentially be formed, political parties may wish to hold discussions to establish who is best able to command the confidence of the House of Commons and should form the next government.
Finally, in the case of a general election resulting in an overall majority for a party other than the one in power, the incumbent Prime Minister and government will immediately resign and the monarch will invite the leader of the winning party to form a government.
The Cabinet Manual includes no guidance on what should happen in the case of the death or incapacitation of the incumbent Prime Minister and the UK has no line of Prime Ministerial sucession.
In modern times, the issue came to a head in April , when Boris Johnson was admitted to ICU. In that instance, he asked First Secretary of State there was no Deputy Prime Minister Dominic Raab " In addition to being the leader of a great political party and the head of Her Majesty's Government, the modern prime minister directs the law-making process, enacting into law his or her party's programme.
For example, Tony Blair , whose Labour party was elected in partly on a promise to enact a British Bill of Rights and to create devolved governments for Scotland and Wales, subsequently stewarded through Parliament the Human Rights Act , the Scotland Act and the Government of Wales Act From its appearance in the fourteenth century Parliament has been a bicameral legislature consisting of the Commons and the Lords.
Members of the Commons are elected; those in the Lords are not. Most Lords are called "Temporal" with titles such as Duke, Marquess, Earl, and Viscount.
The balance are Lords Spiritual prelates of the Anglican Church. For most of the history of the Upper House, Lords Temporal were landowners who held their estates, titles, and seats as a hereditary right passed down from one generation to the next — in some cases for centuries.
In , for example, there were nineteen whose title was created before Until , prime ministers had to guide legislation through the Commons and the Lords and obtain majority approval in both houses for it to become law.
This was not always easy, because political differences often separated the chambers. Representing the landed aristocracy, Lords Temporal were generally Tory later Conservative who wanted to maintain the status quo and resisted progressive measures such as extending the franchise.
The party affiliation of members of the Commons was less predictable. During the 18th century its makeup varied because the Lords had considerable control over elections: sometimes Whigs dominated it, sometimes Tories.
After the passage of the Great Reform Bill in , the Commons gradually became more progressive, a tendency that increased with the passage of each subsequent expansion of the franchise.
In , the Liberal party, led by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , won an overwhelming victory on a platform that promised social reforms for the working class.
Currently no president, although many would argue that the untouchable Lord Peter Mandelson came close. If however, we don't pull out of the EU soon, we may find that we will have a president, a PM and a monarchy.
Something that will become increasingly difficult to reconcile. If by president, you mean the monarch The answer is Queen Elizabeth II since February Dal Answered Related Questions.
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The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II. My dear fellow - Britain England was and still is a monarchy with no president.
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