Review of: Cold Fusion

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Cold Fusion

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On May 1, East Coast physicists launched a major debunking offensive. A Boston Herald headline read, "MIT Bombshell Knocks Fusion 'Breakthrough' Cold.

The director of their department, Ronald Parker, dismissed the whole thing as "scientific schlock" and "maybe fraud.

A few months later, with the full details still not released from Utah, MIT described its own version of the Pons-Fleischmann experiment and reported no excess heat.

Soon, other hot fusion institutions, such as Harwell in Great Britain, were complaining that they couldn't make the experiment perform as advertised, either.

It seemed evident that Pons and Fleischmann had precipitated a media circus before verifying their wild ideas, and now they would be forced to face reality.

Eugene Mallove, an MIT-trained engineer working as chief science writer in the MIT news office, was a cold fusion skeptic. Then he studied data from the MIT experiment, and the graph looked wrong to him.

In a recent interview, he told me, "I realized they had moved the baseline to conceal a small amount of anomalous heat. Packham had even detected small amounts of tritium, a radioactive by-product virtually guaranteeing that fusion had taken place.

But then he said to Packham, my grad student, 'I've turned off the tape, now you can tell me - it's a fraud, isn't it? If you confess to me now, I won't be hard on you, you'll be able to pursue your career.

According to Bockris, "A postdoctoral student named Kainthla, and a technician named Velev, both detected tritium and heat after we took Packham off the work because of the controversy.

Since then, numerous people have obtained comparable results. In , I counted papers reporting tritium in low-temperature fusion experiments.

One of them was by Fritz Will, the president of The Electrochemical Society, who has an impeccable reputation. Still, Taubes's report in the June Science magazine clearly suggested that Packham might have added tritium to fake his results.

This reassured many people that cold fusion had been bogus all along. Packham received his PhD, but only on condition that all references to cold fusion be removed from the body of his thesis.

Today he works for NASA, developing astronaut life-support systems. John Bockris sighs as he remembers the impact on his own career.

He was investigated by his university, which found no evidence of incompetence or fraud. He was investigated again in , and exonerated again; but his ordeal still wasn't over.

As he recalls: "The people in the chemistry department created their own ad hoc committee for the investigation of professor Bockris.

For 11 months I was under investigation by them, without ever knowing what the investigation was. Other cold fusion researchers were likewise reviled - especially Pons and Fleischmann, who eventually retreated to the south of France, where Pons adopted French citizenship.

Financial factors may have played a part in the fierce animosity exhibited toward cold fusion experiments. The bottom line, though, was that since most labs couldn't replicate the effect, most physicists sincerely believed that cold fusion didn't exist.

They dismissed the few positive results as experimental error. As it happens, there was another possible explanation: Palladium is a quixotic metal.

Pons and Fleischmann were not fully aware of these potential factors at the time of their press conference. A year later, the subtleties of cold fusion experimentation were better understood - but by this time, it was too late.

The concept had been ridiculed and denounced. Still, some researchers refused to quit. An international "cold fusion underground" evolved, trading data and theories which conventional journals refused to publish.

In Italy, Giuliano Preparata claimed he had replicated the original experiment successfully. So did a Frenchman named Lonchampt, with support from the French Atomic Energy Commission.

Pons and Fleischmann set up a new laboratory in the south of France, funded by Technova, a research group supported by Toyota. The Electric Power Research Institute EPRI financed cold fusion research at SRI International, and several other institutions quietly sponsored similar work.

Some reports claimed unequivocal success: In August , in document TR, regarding project , EPRI concluded: "Small but definite evidence of nuclear reactions have been detected at levels some 40 orders of magnitude greater than predicted by conventional nuclear theory.

In , Pons and Fleischmann described a cell that had reached boiling point, and subsequently they claimed to generate more than 1 kilowatt per cubic centimeter of palladium - about percent excess heat, lasting for more than 50 days.

Fleischmann calculated that if this ratio could be upped to kilowatts, "You could satisfy all the world's existing energy requirements with the existing supply of palladium.

Alas, to skeptics this sounded like an embarrassing attempt by a discredited scientist to salvage his reputation.

Few people took Fleischmann seriously, and his research terminated when funding from Toyota was cut off. He moved back to England and retired, while Pons reportedly became embittered and ceased working in the field.

Today, a handful of laboratories still pursue cold fusion, but their work remains largely ignored. I knew nothing about it myself until Eugene Mallove, the former science writer from MIT, sent me a copy of a book he had written titled Fire from Ice, which provided an excellent factual summary.

But Mallove also edits Infinite Energy, a magazine which Arthur C. Clarke had helped to fund; and this turned out to be a wild grab bag of eye-popping assertions and evangelistic rants against the establishment.

In the March-June issue, for instance, an article was headlined:. Low-Energy Bulk-Process Alchemy One-Tenth Gram of Thorium Becomes Titanium and Copper Most Sacrosanct Principles of Physics Overturned.

At the same time, buried among the far-fetched claims were rigorous reports from credentialed scientists. The result was schizophrenic, like a collision between American Journal of Physics and Weekly World News.

When I saw that the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion would be held in Vancouver within a few weeks, I decided to go there to find out for myself just how wacky these cold fusionists would turn out to be.

In a huge, grandiose convention center I found about extremely conventional-looking scientists, almost all of them male and over In fact some seemed over 70, and I realized why: The younger ones had bailed years ago, fearing career damage from the cold fusion stigma.

I sat through four days of highly technical presentations and was amazed by the quantity of the work, its quality, and the credentials of the people pursuing it.

A few obvious pseudoscientists, promoting their ideas in an adjoining room used for poster sessions, were politely ignored. Stanley Pons, now in his mids, did not attend, but Martin Fleischmann was there, pacing impatiently, as bad-tempered as a snapping turtle - though he could be charming when he felt like it.

He looked younger than his 71 years, with a stocky build, a pink complexion, and long hair hanging behind a balding pate. Eyeing me with amusement through gold wire-framed glasses, he entertained himself by avoiding most of my questions.

I asked why his lab in the south of France had lost its funding. Do you imagine the seven sisters [the world's top oil companies] want it? Does it fit into any idea of macroeconomics or microeconomics?

I don't think so. And do you really think that the Department of Defense wants electrochemists producing nuclear reactions in test tubes? I liked his defiant, gadfly style, but his habit of answering questions with questions wasn't very helpful, so I chatted briefly with John Bockris.

Sharp-profiled, slightly bent with age, he moved from one exhibit of research results to the next with the fastidious, perfectionist eye of a watchmaker, tut-tutting over tiny discrepancies or unsupported hypotheses.

Supposedly, this was the man who had either committed fraud, or allowed his grad student to do so. Finally I talked to Dan Cavicchio, a multimillionaire whose New Energy Partners VC fund has raised venture capital for commercial applications of cold fusion.

Soft-spoken and low-key, with a neat haircut and a conservative suit, Cavicchio told me that in the late s he made a fortune by buying companies that had good technology but were poorly managed.

When his partner left, Cavicchio looked around, found cold fusion, and became convinced that it was real. This was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to get involved with something that's going to change the earth, it's going to be so big.

Of course, scientists outside the conference would have laughed at these ambitions - if they'd had any way of knowing about them.

As far as I could tell, I was the only mainstream journalist who bothered to attend. To the outside world, it didn't exist.

I found myself faced with an impossible choice: Either chemists and physicists had spent the past nine years doing incompetent experiments and engaging in full-blown self-delusion, or a genuine discovery of great importance had been discredited so thoroughly, some ornery retirees and tenured professors were the only ones who still had the courage even to mention it.

On a quiet backstreet near El Camino Real, a profusion of trees screens a sprawling complex of '60s-style buildings. SRI International is quintessentially Northern California: tasteful, verdant, low-key.

Founded in to tap talent from nearby Stanford University, its innovations include liquid-crystal displays, optical data storage, acoustic modems, pen-input computing, HDTV, artificial heart valves, and speech-recognition software.

All its research is sponsored by outside companies or government agencies, mostly seeking practical applications.

Michael McKubre, the Energy Research Center director, is blue-eyed and brawny in jeans and a black T-shirt as he strides vigorously across the lobby to meet me.

His longish hair and beard are gray at the edges, but he seems energized and confident, like a woodsman setting out on a hike. He leads me across a courtyard rimmed with eucalyptus trees, into a building of chemistry labs.

Although born in New Zealand, McKubre has an almost English accent, and his voice is well modulated, as if he once took acting lessons.

He's relaxed, witty, and charming. When I ask to see one of the laboratories, he opens a door for me, then pauses.

He's referring to a cold fusion cell that exploded after building up excess gas pressure. I still have pieces of glass in me that work their way up to the surface.

Otherwise, the work would have ended. If we're right, and there's a nuclear-based heat production mechanism, I believe the implications for humanity and science are too great for any individual to say, 'I don't want to do this anymore.

He gives me safety goggles before opening another heavy steel door, then introduces me to Francis Tanzella, who is energetic, enthusiastic, but has difficulty talking nontechnically.

He's going to be my guide. This lab is big - perhaps 50 feet long, divided into small cubicles with panels of steel-framed half-inch Lexan providing protection in case another explosion occurs.

Inside the cubicles are glass containers, pressure gauges, valves, and tubes where liquids surge and bubble. Watching cold fusion is like watching water boil in slow motion.

First, sufficient deuterium has to penetrate the palladium electrode. This can take a few weeks. Then, if excess heat is generated during the next month or two, accurate temperature readings require extreme precautions to exclude environmental effects.

After nine years of this work, he doesn't just live for it, he seems to live in it. He pauses thoughtfully. But - look, if you commit yourself in any direction, you always sacrifice the other things you've learned.

McKubre was summoned by Edward Teller. McKubre rejoins us and recounts his own background. He did postdoctoral research at Britain's Southampton University because, like Stanley Pons, he was impressed by Fleischmann's reputation.

Unlike Pons, however, McKubre lost touch with Fleischmann after relocating in the United States. When cold fusion was announced, he was program manager in electrochemistry at SRI, funded by EPRI to develop sensors for nuclear reactors.

By pure coincidence he was working routinely with deuterium and palladium, so - why not give it a try? McKubre underestimated the complexities of heat measurement.

Lo and behold, they both generated heat, and the bigger one generated more heat than the smaller one. This was enough to convince us that the effect probably was real.

Subsequently one cell at SRI generated times the heat that could be explained by any conceivable chemical reaction. Overall, according to McKubre, "the ratio of power out to power in ranged from 1.

Our new calorimeter was accurate to better than half a percent, so, without a doubt, the results were statistically significant.

Significant, and ignored - though some mainstream scientists maintained a discreet interest in the field. Around , McKubre says, he was summoned for an audience with legendary physicist Edward Teller.

You could see what a giant intellect he must have been in his time. I was subjected to this interrogation for four hours. At the end of it Teller said that he did not think that cold fusion was a reality, but if it were, he could account for it with a very small change in the laws of physics as he understood them, and it would prove to be an example of nuclear catalysis at an interface.

I still don't understand what he meant by that, but I'm quite willing to believe that it's correct. Currently, McKubre is overseeing a radically different experiment.

We walk down an echoing hallway, into a smaller room crammed with equipment. Amid the steady hum and whine of cooling fans, a large, bearded guy wearing khaki shorts and a short-sleeved shirt is sitting in front of a video screen.

He introduces himself as Russ George, 48, a former ecologist for the Canadian government who switched to cold fusion more than five years ago.

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For the best results, please get the latest version of Google Chrome. Click on groups of 2 or more plasma pieces of the same color to fuse them and wipe them out.

Plan ahead to group more of the same plasma together for bigger fusions and bigger points. Oriani et al.

This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.

And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter C , 42 5 : R—R, Bibcode : PhRvC..

Langmuir , pp. It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp. Sources: " Burden on the Examiner.

Examiner Has Initial Burden To Show That One of Ordinary Skill in the Art Would Reasonably Doubt the Asserted Utility" , U. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2nd, illustrated ed.

Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed. We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.

International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. Archived from the original on 3 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Van Siclen and S. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. G: Nucl. Bibcode : Natur. Barnes on 13 and 26 June ".

The Caltech Institute Archives. Retrieved 22 August Stanford Reports Success , The New York Times. J 29 June , "Measurement of gamma-rays from cold fusion letter by Fleischmann et al.

Archived from the original on 26 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 27 November Skeptical Inquirer.

Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry. Prelas, Eric Lukosi. Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 May Archived PDF from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 21 January Current Science.

Archived from the original on 5 August A , Close , pp. The cell is calibrated Archived from the original on 23 December Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science and the 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion ICCF — August Washington DC PDF.

Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 31 October Anyone can deliver a paper. Wholly inoperative inventions; "incredible" utility" , U.

Rislove , "A Case Study of Inoperable Inventions: Why Is the USPTO Patenting Pseudoscience? Archived from the original on 13 February — via www.

Another computer scientist translated an old article in the Swedish technical journal Ny Teknika. Taubes says: " Ny Teknika seemed to believe that Tandberg had missed on the discovery of the century, done in by an ignorant patent bureau.

When Pons heard the story, he agreed. The department had had its laboratory administrators send emissaries to Washington immediately.

The government laboratories had free reign [ sic ] to pursue their cold fusion research, Ianniello said, to use whatever resources they needed, and DOE would cover the expenses.

A reason that it is not as well known below this energy because the individual rates are so low. However, the rate is known at room temperature from muon catalysed fusion experiments.

There is no reason to think that these branching ratios would be measurably altered for cold fusion. Materials Characterization: D.

Confinement Pressure, which has a similar explanation. Electrochemical cold fusion is widely considered to be discredited.

Douglas 28 February Bibcode : PhLA.. The phenomenon then separates the scientists in two camps, believers and skeptics.

Interest dies as only a small band of believers is able to 'produce the phenomenon' Ackermann, Eric February , "Indicators of failed information epidemics in the scientific journal literature: A publication analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion", Scientometrics , 66 3 : —, doi : Energy panel split over whether experiments produced power" , Nature News , doi : MIT professor risks career to reenergize discredited idea" , The Boston Globe Derry, Gregory Neil , What Science Is and How It Works reprint, illustrated ed.

Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion. Held 31 October-5 November in Marseilles , 11Th Condensed Matter Nuclear Science , 11 , p.

Hagelstein, Peter L. Cold Fusion? Laurence, William L.

The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics. On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold Postleitzahlenlotto in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion. And My Free Far you really think that the Department of Defense wants electrochemists producing nuclear reactions in test tubes? Otherwise, the work would have ended. We do sets of five analyses: First we check for helium in the instrument, then the helium background in ambient air, then the helium being generated by the apparatus. In Augustthe Esports Stuttgart. Archived from the original PDF on 31 My Free Far He's referring to a cold fusion cell that exploded after building up excess gas pressure. Don't have an account yet? Second, thou shalt not exaggerate the results. Under certain circumstances, Fleischmann believed, nuclear fusion might occur near room temperature. When cold fusion was announced, he was program manager in electrochemistry Nations League Erklärung SRI, funded by EPRI to develop sensors for nuclear reactors. Consequently the field is languishing, while its key scientists grow older, and few newcomers venture in. He believes you don't need millions of degrees or billions of dollars to fuse atomic nuclei and yield energy.

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